RES Newsletter Features

Online issue 179

Taking the Society forward
RES Chief Executive Leighton Chipperfield discusses recent developments at the Society and plans for the future.

Great Britain’s June 2017 preferences on Brexit options
Thomas Colignatus looks at the results of a YouGov poll taken just after this year’s General Election which sought to elicit people’s preferences for various forms of Brexit. Predictably, perhaps, the results show a degree of incoherence and inconsistency.

MMF Annual Conference - Report
Paul Mizen reports on the MMF's 49th Annual Conference held at King's College London.

Improving economic information for free-trade agreements
Michael Joffe, Imperial College, London, has written before in these pages about the development of what he calls ‘evidence-based’ economics, using the conventional wisdom about free-trade agreements to illustrate his case. Here he returns to the theme based on a presentation he recently made to the (UK) parliamentary International Trade Committee.

Brexit and the City
The 34th Symposium Money, Banking and Finance was held at Paris Nanterre University on 5th July 2017 on behalf of the UK's Money, Macro and Finance (MMF) research group. This is a report by Andy Mullineux on a ‘Roundtable’ arranged by the Organising Committee.

British Science Association (BSA) Festival of Science
The annual meeting of the British Science Association (BSA) Festival of Science took place on 5th-9th September. David Dickinson reports on the economics event.

The BBC - at it again?
For the last year or so the RES (and others) have been expressing concerns about the way in which the media, and the BBC in particular, report economic news. Recent events suggest this anxiety is likely to continue for a while yet.

Impacts of Trump Tax Reforms on Growth, Inequality and Debt
As President Trump finds it increasingly difficult to deliver any of his large pre-election promises, attention focuses increasingly on his plans to reform taxation in the USA. Keshab Bhattarai, Jonathan Haughton and David Tuerck take a look at what that might mean — if it happens.


Online issue 178

Conference Report 2017
The Society’s Annual Conference was held at the University of Bristol, 10-12 April. This report was prepared by Soumaya Keynes of the Economist.

Economics: The Profession and the Public
On 5th May a one-day symposium, hosted by HM Treasury, brought together around two hundred economists from government, academia, business and the media to discuss the particular challenges of communicating a technical subject to the public. This report comes from Alvin Birdi and Ashley Lait of the Economics Network.

The Gender Balance in UK Economics Departments and Research Institutes in 2016
The report, by Silvana Tenreyro,1 covers the eleventh survey of gender balance in academic employment in economics in Britain in a series started in 1996 by the Royal Economic Society Women’s Committee and repeated bi-annually thereafter. This is a shortened version of the full report which can be read on the Society’s website.

Online issue 177

Secretary-General's Annual Report
The Secretary-General, Denise Osborn, presented her second annual report to the Society’s AGM at the University of Bristol on Tuesday 11th April.

A science, not an ideology
Christian Gollier, Founder and former Director of the Toulouse School of Economics, currently on sabbatical at UCL talks to Tim Phillips (Editor of the CORE project) about TSE’s first year of teaching CORE to its undergraduates.

The Inomics 2016 Salary Survey
INOMICS has been offering students and professionals a comprehensive online resource for their academic and career choices since 1998. Amongst the services it provides is an Annual Salary Report. The 2016 Report was published just after our January issue went to press. Here is a summary of its main findings. Full details of the survey and of INOMICS’ other activities can be found at their website, https://inomics.com/ISR2016.

Voting theory and the Brexit referendum question
The Brexit referendum question was flawed in its design by ignoring Kenneth Arrow's impossibility theorem. Thomas Colignatus explains.

The creation of money — good practice in evidence-based economics
Michael Joffe has argued the merits of an ‘evidence-based economics’ in these pages before. Here he provides an example of good practice.

Online issue 176

Economic Journal — Editors’ Annual Report
The editors of the Economic Journal made their annual report covering the period July 1 2015 to June 30 2016, to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. This is an edited version of that report.

Econometrics Journal — Editor’s annual report
The managing editor, Richard J Smith, made the annual report covering the period July 1 2015 to June 30 2016, to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. This is an edited version of that report.

John Maynard Keynes in King’s College and the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money.
This conference was held on October 8 2016 at the University of Cambridge and at King's College, to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the General Theory. Over 120 delegates from around the world attended. The conference was funded by King’s College Development Office and took place in an auditorium where J M Keynes used to lecture 80 years ago. Hélène de Largentaye reports.

Money, Macro, Finance Annual Conference
The MMF 48th Annual Conference took place at the University of Bath on 7-9th September 2016. This report comes from Paul Mizen.

Two prizes in economics
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2016 was awarded jointly to Oliver Hart (Harvard) and Bengt Holmström (MIT) while the European Economics Association has awarded the Birgit Grodal prize to Lucrezia Reichlin.

Online issue 175

Digital Skills Boost Your Earning Power: New Evidence for OECD Countries
The Annual Congress of the European Economic Association took place in Geneva in August. One of the many papers to attract interest was by Oliver Falck, Alexandra Heimisch, and Simon Wiederhold on the effect of digital skills on earnings. This is a shortened version of that paper.

Academic economists and the media
In our July issue, Simon Wren-Lewis described the way in which the media has become increasingly dismissive of the views of academic economists even when, as with the referendum on EU membership, their views were largely unanimous. On page 19 of this issue, we print a reaction to Simon’s argument. In the meantime, the Centre for Macroeconomics has done its own survey of economists themselves on why they think this situation has arisen and what we might do about it. This is an edited version of their results.

The limits to ‘whatever it takes’: Lessons from the gold standard
When Mario Draghi famously declared that the ECB was ‘ready to do whatever it takes to preserve the euro’, he also specified ‘within our mandate’. This article, by Stefano Ugolini, examines the institutional limitations to central bankers’ actions. It argues that institutional constraints are essential in determining the sustainability of monetary policies, and hence central banks’ ability to pursue their targets. The weakness of the Bank of England in the heyday of the gold standard is a case in point.

UK migration: separating fact and fiction
The British Science Association’s Festival of Science was held this year from 6th to 9th September at the University of Swansea. This report somes from David Dickinson, Recorder to the Economics Section.

Reforming the economics curriculum
In 2014-15 we reported on three initiatives to revise the teaching of economics, each of which was inspired to some degree by the apparent difficulty that economics had in warning of the crisis of 2007-8. Two years on, it seems worth reviewing progress. We had an update from the CORE project in our April issue (no.173). Here, Calum Michell reviews recent events at the ‘Post-Crash Economics Society’. We shall have an update from the Association of Heterodox Economists shortly.

The gender earnings gap at the LSE
Oriana Bandeira was recently asked to examine the university’s own data to measure the gender gap at LSE. This is a brief summary of her findings.

ESRC Media training
In the light of current concern over the media's treatment of economic issues, we printed this brief note aboout the ESRC's provision of media training for social science researchers.


Online Issue 174

Europe after Brexit -'As ye sow, so shall ye reap'
Andrew Duff reflects on the UK’s relationship with the EU following the decision to leave and discusses likely future developments.

Annual Conference Report, 2016
The Society’s Annual Conference was held at the University of Sussex, 21-23 March. This report was prepared by Ferdinando Giugliano.

The public trusts academic economists, but the media are losing interest
Simon Wren-Lewis, looks at the declining ability of academic economists to make an impact in
important public debates and argues for an urgent collective effort to reverse this trend.

Reforming the Society's constitution
The forthcoming retirement of Mark Robson as the Society’s Honorary Treasurer was announced in the April Newsletter. In his time as treasurer Mark did a lot of work to enhance the Society’s constitution.
To mark the Society’s appreciation of those efforts, the editor invited Mark to explain the thinking.

The productivity fallacy
Six years into fiscal consolidation policies around the world, economists are wholly preoccupied with supply rather than demand. Productivity figures are regarded as indicating structural flaws, of far
greater interest than the successes or otherwise of governments' fiscal strategies. This note by Geoff Tily, argues that it is a fallacy to interpret failures of productivity outcomes as indicating a failure of supply. The disregard for the demand story is deeply problematic in practice.

Exploring Economics at University College, London
‘ExploreEcon’ is an annual research conference for the university’s economics undergraduates.
Introduced two years ago, the conference is seen as a way to further UCL's stated objective of providing a research-based education. This article, by Mateusz Stalinski, is one student’s report on the experience.


Online Issue 173

Between copying and creating: where does East Asia fit?
Rajah Rasiah takes issue with the argument that the growth of some East Asia economies is largely a reflection of increased inputs rather than technological innovation.

Secretary-General’s Annual Report
The Secretary-General, Denise Osborn, presented her first annual report to the Society’s AGM at the University of Sussex on Tuesday 22nd March.

The Inomics 2015 Salary Survey
INOMICS has been offering students and professionals a comprehensive online resource for their academic and career choices since 1998. Amongst the services it provides is an Annual Salary Report. The 2015 Report was published as our January issue went to press. Here is a summary of its main findings. Full details of the survey and of INOMICS’ other activities can be found at their website.

From Lahore to Sheffield - Workshops on implementing and teaching the new CORE Intro course
By Alvin Birdi, on behalf of the CORE Teaching Committee.

On gender, research discipline and being the editor of an economics journal in the UK
In 1998 the Royal Economic Society Women’s Committee explored the gender composition of editorial boards for 25 journals where at least one of the editors was based in the UK. This exercise was repeated in 2003, 2011 and is updated here for 2016. The number of female managing editors or co-editors has risen slowly over time and is now in line with the proportion of females amongst professors. The number of women amongst the members of editorial boards is, however, far outstripped by the growth in the relative numbers of female readers/senior lecturers. We find little difference in the research areas of male and female academic economists, suggesting that there is a substantial pool of suitable women who could be asked to join these editorial boards. This report was prepared by Karen Mumford, University of York (Chair of the Women’s Committee).

Online Issue 172

Assessing the legacy of the London 2012 Olympic Games
In August this year the 31st Olympiad will open in Rio de Janeiro. More than usually, these preparations have been accompanied by doubts about the Rio authorities’ ability to meet the complex requirements and spiralling costs of the event and whether it’s in their interests to do so. In this article Allan Brimicombe describes the difficulties involved in evaluating the benefits of hosting major international events of this kind.

RES’s ‘American Correspondent’ receives Nobel honour.
We were delighted to hear last October, that Angus Deaton, who writes our regular ‘Letters from America, had been awarded the Swedish Central Bank Prize in Memory of Alfred Nobel. This article, based on a blog by David Warsh, records our congratulations and our gratitude to Angus for his entertaining efforts over many years.

The RES Annual Public Lecture — Does Starbucks Pay Enough Tax?
Contrary to popular belief, there is relatively little evidence that the UK or US lose substantial amounts of tax revenue due to firms' avoidance activities. This is surprising because it seems that there are ample opportunities for them to do so. Professor Griffith discussed why that might be the case, and some of challenges that governments face in effectively taxing firm profits.

The Monetary and Financial Policy Conference 2015
The Money, Macro, Finance Research Group have established a new annual conference to engage constructively with policy developments at the Bank of England. Chair Jagjit Chadha (Kent) and Secretary Richard Barwell (BNP Paribas Investment Partners) report on the conference attended by macroeconomists from academe, the City, policy-making institutes and the main consultancies and hosted by Bloomberg.

A UK Housing Evidence Centre
Understanding the UK housing market, and all the problems associated with it, is important for a wide variety of reasons. This is why the Economic and Social Research Council has made housing one of its priorities and, in particular, has decided to help set up a UK Housing Evidence Centre to act as a knowledge hub for housing research. The purpose of this article, by Stephen Millard, is to promote this Evidence Centre to members of the Royal Economic Society. Further information can be found on the ESRC's housing landing page.

Econometrics Journal — Editor’s annual report
The managing editor, Richard J Smith, made the annual report covering the period July 1 2014 to June 30 2015, to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. This is an edited version of that report

Economic Journal — Editors’ Annual Report
The editors of the Economic Journal made their annual report covering the period July 1 2014 to June 30 2015, to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. This is an edited version of that report.

Online Issue 171

Highs and Lows with the Women’s Committee Surveys
This report on the 10th and most recent of the surveys carried out by the Society’s Committee on Women in the Economics Profession was prepared by Karen Mumford.

Money, Macro and Finance Research Group
The 47th Annual Conference of the MMFRG took place at Cardiff Business School on 9th-11th September. This report comes from Huw Dixon.

Monetary and Macro-Prudential Policy: What will be the ‘New Normal’?
A panel session organised and chaired by Andy Mullineux (University of Birmingham) on behalf of the UK’s Money Macro and Finance Research Group (MMF) took place on Friday 12 June 2015 at the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis during the 32nd International Symposium on Money, Banking and Finance organised by the GdRE European Monnaie, Banque et Finance (EMBF).

British Science Association Festival of Science — Section F (Economics)
The British Science Association held its annual Festival of Science at Bradford University on 7-10 September 2015. This report comes from David Dickinson, the Recorder of the Economics section.

Online Issue 170

Annual Conference report, 2015
The Society’s Annual Conference took place at the University of Manchester from 30th March to 1st April. This report comes from Mark Thoma, professor of economics at the University of Oregon and blogger at Economist’s View.

Pro Bono Economics
Pro Bono Economics was registered in 2009 and we marked its foundation in the July 2009 Newsletter (no. 146). We later reported on its progress in January 2012 (no. 156). The Director of the charity is Sue Holloway and she provides a further update below.

Economists’ contributions to the UK general election debates — so much effort, so little impact
In the month or two leading up to the UK general election on 7 May 2015, a range of economists and economic groups put a lot of effort into providing information and assessments of the relevant economic policy issues. But it seems nobody listened. David Cobham asks why this was and how we should respond.

Inaugural RES Symposium of Junior Researchers (2015)
The Inaugural Royal Economic Society Symposium of Junior Researchers took place at the University of Manchester on the 2nd April 2015. This article is based upon the report to the RES prepared by James Lincoln.

News from the Economics Network - Employers’ Survey 2014-15
Alice Beckett, research assistant at the Economics Network, summarises the findings.

A Global ‘Apollo’ Programme to Tackle Climate Change
This is the name given to the plan to reduce the cost of clean energy, promoted by a number of eminent scientists and economists. The initiative was launched at LSE on 2nd June. This is an edited version of the report that appeared on the voxEU website.

Online Issue 169

Secretary-General’s Annual Report
The Secretary-General, John Beath, presented his final report to the Society’s AGM at the University of Manchester on Tuesday 31st March.

The Rise of Elitism in the Study of Economics: has it happened and does it really matter?
While the number of students studying economics in the UK has risen in recent years, this increase has been concentrated disproportionately in ‘old’ (i.e. pre-1992) institutions. James Johnston and Alan Reeves, draw a detailed picture and speculate on whether this concentration of the discipline in more expensive, elite, institutions threatens to make economics a subject for the better off.

The Bank of England’s research agenda
In last July’s Newsletter, Stephen Millard described the Bank of England’s plans to increase contacts with academic economists. In the next key stage of this development, the Bank has now published a One Bank Research Agenda and an accompanying discussion paper. This article states the Bank’s key research themes as set out in the discussion paper.

What do we really know about the effects of free trade agreements?
In an earlier contribution to this Newsletter, Michael Joffe argued that economics should be based on evidence. Here he shows how not to do it.

Revisiting the State of Economics Education
As we reported in the April 2012 issue of the Newsletter (no. 157), the Royal Economic Society, the Bank of England and the Government Economic Service hosted a conference in February 2012 on the state of economics education. In this article, Alvin Birdi reports on a follow up event, hosted by the Economics Network and held at the Bank of England on Tuesday 17th March. The event was attended by over 140 academics, students, journalists, practitioners and policy makers.

Online Issue 168

Economic Journal - Managing editors’ report
The annual report of the editors of the Economic Journal was presented to Council in November. This is an edited version.

Econometrics Journal - Editor’s annual report
The managing editor, Richard J Smith, made the annual report covering the period July 1 2013 to June 30 2014, to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. This is an edited version of that report.

The 46th Annual Conference of the Money, Macro, Finance Group
The 46th Annual Conference of the MMF was held over 17-19th September at the University of
Durham. The group’s chair, Jagjit Chadha, reports.

Economics as a pluralist, liberal education
In the third of our articles on the reform of the economics curriculum, the Post-Crash Economics
Society outlines its proposals.

Kathy Crocker retires
Kathy Crocker, University of York, has retired after working for the Royal Economic Society for 34 years, firstly in the Editorial office of the Economic Journal and then as Membership Secretary of the Society. Here she recalls some people and events during this time.

Online Issue 167

The gender gap in economics: where does it arise?
In the UK there is a persistent gender gap in university enrolment into Economics. In this article, Mirco Tonin and Jackie Wahba report the results of a recent paper exploring the sources of this gap.

More on the gender gap in economics
Karen Mumford reflects on the very interesting issues raised by Tonin and Wahba in their article.

Open access in the post-REF 2014 world
Daniel Zizzo explains what is meant by ‘open access’ and how it will affect economists in UK universities.

British Association — section F — report
David Dickinson, University of Birmingham, reports on the British Science Festival that took place at the university, 6-11 September 2014.

MMF panel at the Groupement de Recherche Européen
A special plenary panel session was organised and chaired by Andy Mullineux* on behalf of the UK's Monetary Macro, Finance Research Group (MMF) at the 31st International Symposium of the Groupement de Recherche Européen (GdRE) 'Monnaie, Banque et Finance' in Lyon on the 19th June 2014. This is Andy’s report.

Shouldn’t economists get involved in the making of the national accounts? Writing from America Salah el Serafy argues that economists should pay more attention to national income estimation especially where natural resource deterioration is overlooked.

Necessary pluralism in economics: the case for heterodoxy
In our survey of major recommendations for curriculum reform, the last, July, issue of the Newsletter featured a description of the INET-Core project led by Wendy Carlin. This time it is the turn of the Association of Heterodox Economists. The author is Jamie Morgan.

An economic supreme court Thomas Colignatus* argues that the economic crises in the last century amount to a case for national Economic Supreme Courts.

QE plus supply side reforms will not save the Eurozone: what is needed is a fiscal expansion accompanied by QE
Francesco Giavazzi and Guido Tabellini* argue for fiscal expansion as part of a package to reanimate the Eurozone.

Online Issue 166

RES Annual Conference 2014 Report
The Society’s Annual Conference took place this year at the University of Manchester from 7th to 9th April. This report was compiled by Ryan Avent of The Economist.

Changing the subject
The financial crisis triggered widespread introspection among teachers of economics and a substantial dissatisfaction with the existing curriculum was demonstrated through a number of channels. In this article Alvin Birdie summarises the various responses and sets the scene for a more detailed look at three of them. In this issue, we look at the INET-CORE proposals. The Association for Heterodox Economics and the Post-Crash Economics Society have been invited to give their proposals in forthcoming issues.

New teaching for economics: the INET-CORE project

One high-profile response to the need to revise the economics curriculum, is the CORE project financially supported by the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET) and based at INET at the Oxford Martin School. We look at the background and progress of the project.

The Bank of England’s Engagement with Academia
Stephen Millard explains the Bank of England’s current efforts to increase its engagement with the academic community.

Scotland would not be better off as an independent nation

Results from the Centre for Macroeconomics June Survey. In the article that follows this, Andrew Hughes Hallett explores the difficulties of making these judgements.

Why assessments of Scotland’s economy under independence are so often misleading
A majority of economists believe that Scotland would be worse off if she were independent, according to a new VoxEU survey. A smaller majority believe that the rest of the UK (rUK) would be acting in its own self-interest if it tried to rule out a currency union. Andrew Hughes Hallett explains why both beliefs are misleading.

Online Issue 165

Secretary General’s 2014 Annual Report
The Secretary-General, John Beath, presented this report to the Society’s AGM at the University of Manchester on Tuesday 8th April.

The Polish contribution to economics
In Newsletter no. 134 (July 2006) Harald Hagemann told the story of the contribution of German economists exiled from their native country by the Nazi regime. Here Janek Toporowski examines the contribution of Polish economists over a rather longer period.

Can economics be evidence-based?
In this follow-up to his earlier article, Michael Joffe, Imperial College, discusses what it means for economics to be ‘evidence-based’.

Myths of the Great War
Understandably, 2014 has seen (and will yet see) many reflections on the 'Great War' of 1914-18. In a lecture given to the Economic History Society Annual Conference on 28th March, Mark Harrison identified a number of widely-held myths about that tragic event. This is a shortened version of that lecture.

A Career in Modelling: A Note on the Government Economic Service
On the anniversary of the GES’s 50th birthday Helen Carrier and Karen Mumford look at the relative position of women in the GES from 2000 to 2012.

Online Issue 164

Economic Journal - Managing editors' report
The annual report of the editors of the Economic Journal was presented to Council in November 2013. This is an edited version.

Econometrics Journal - Editor's report
The managing editor, Richard J Smith, made the annual report covering the period July 1 2011 to June 30 2012 to Council in November 2013. This is an edited version.

Money, Macro Finance Group - 45th Annual Conference
The MMF's 45th Annual Conference was held on 11-13th September 2013 at Queen Mary University of London. This report was compiled by the Chair, Jagjit Chadha, and the Local Organiser, Francis Breedon.

Tax regimes in a global environment
A recent study by KPMG reported a remarkable shift toward the UK's regime of corporate taxation even thouhg lower tax rates can be found elsewhere. In this article, Gareth Myles explains why this might be, and how national tax systems function in a global environment.

University management and performance
Recent research by John McCormack, Carol Propper and Sarah Smith challenges the view that management practice makes little difference to the performance of academic institutions.

Taking economics to the widest audience
A report on two recent public events, supported by the RES, which set adventurous precedents in the use of internet technology.

Online Issue 163

Keynes as investment manager
J M Keynes is well-known as a patron of the arts and as the owner of one of the finest private collections of modern paintings when he died. In this article, John Wasik describes Keynes’s role as investor and fund manager and shows how his practical experience of markets influenced his ideas about how capitalism worked.

Reflections on CHUDE
Neil Rickman, University of Surrey, has just retired after six years as chairman of the RES’s Conference of the Heads of University Departments of Economics. Here he recalls some of its activities and achievements.

Dangerous home ownership
While the government increases its efforts to boost the housing market (and the Governor of the Bank of England says he is on the alert for a housing bubble) Andrew Oswald reports on research that shows that high levels of home-ownership cost jobs.

Government investment, technology and growth
In this article, Mariana Mazzucato argues that the ‘austerity’ debate is missing the point. It is not the level of debt that matters, but what that debt is financing. Contrary to popular belief, it is often 'big' government 'mission oriented' investments that generate long-term economic growth.

Teaching evidence-based economics
Readers of this Newsletter will know that the crisis of 2008 (and its consequences) has provoked a great deal of discussion of the nature of economics education and the possible need for reform. In this article, Michael Joffe of Imperial College London argues that several of the recommendations that have been forthcoming amount to the need to teach economics with a much stronger focus on evidence.

BSA Section F - The labour market after the global financial crisis
The President of Section F for 2013, Prof Steve Machin (UCL), organised a session for the Festival of Science on September 11 at the University of Newcastle at which Prof Paul Gregg (Bath) gave a presentation outlining the unusual behaviour of the labour market since the global financial crisis and the resulting ‘great’ recession. This is David Dickinson’s account of the event.

Restoring the bank lending channel of monetary transmission
This paper reports on a 'round table' panel discussion that that took place at the 30th International Symposium on Money, Banking and Finance, at the University of Nantes, 27-8 June 2013. The conference was organised by the European Research Group GdRE (Groupement de Récherche European) on Money, Banking and Finance which is part of the CNRS (Centre Nationale de la Récherche Scientific) in France. The round table discussion was organised by the UKs ESRC (European and Social Research Council) and Bank of England sponsored MMFRG (Money, Macro, Finance Research Group).

Online Issue 162

The rediscovery of Classical economics
In recent issues the Newsletter has published a number of articles on what passes for ‘good’ economics and what students should be taught, in the light of the recent crisis. In this article, David Simpson makes a case for replacing ‘equilibrium economics’ with a more classically focused approach.

RES Annual Conference 2013 - Conference Report
The Society’s Annual Conference took place this year at Royal Holloway, University of London, from 3rd - 5th April. This report was compiled by Richard Davies of the Economist.

The RES Women’s Committee Survey 2012
This report on the recent survey was prepared by Karen Mumford.

Degree Class Matters
A new study by Andy Feng and Georg Graetz, research students at the Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics, finds that university degree classification matters for
initial job outcomes.

Quantitative Easing and the Quantity Theory of Credit
While the effects of QE continue to be debated, Richard Werner explains the origin of the term (and some misconceptions surrounding it).

Online Issue 161

Secretary-General’s 2013 Annual Report
The Secretary General, John Beath, presented the annual report to the Society’s AGM at Royal Holloway, University of London, on 4th April.

Costing climate change and its mitigation
From the early 1990s onward, economists have engaged with the issue of climate change, in order to brief governments on some of the likely costs of prevention and increasingly of mitigation of the worst effects. In this article, Aart and Wiebina Heesterman1 distinguish three distinct phases of engagement.

Changing Expectations: Implications of the new funding era for the teaching of economics
On Friday 1st March, the Economics Network held its Spring Symposium at HM Treasury, London. The event was attended by around 50 delegates, which included university lecturers, recent graduates and practitioners. This report was prepared by Ashley Lait of the Economics Network.

Investing for Prosperity - Skills, Infrastructure and Innovation
The London School of Economics (LSE) Growth Commission published its final report at the end of January. The report is based on evidence taken in a series of public sessions from leading researchers, business people, policy-makers and UK citizens.

The power of political voice
Anandi Mani reports on her research into the effect of women’s political representation on crime outcomes in India.

Gabon: engaging Chinese timber operators in sustainable forest management
The reckless management of scarce natural resources has been an issue for many years. The depletion of hardwood stocks is usually associated with South America but Kingsley Ughe shows that this is also a problem in parts of West Africa. His research in the area also sheds some interesting light on China's relations with emerging economies.

Teaching Economics After the Crisis: Report from the Steering Group
In the April 2012 Newsletter, Diane Coyle reported on a conference sponsored by the Bank of England and the UK’s Government Economic Service to discuss the teaching of economics since the recent financial and economic crises. One outcome of the Conference was the formation of a steering group, including both academics and employers of graduate economists, to discuss recommendations for reforms to the teaching of economics students in the UK, In this article, Diane summarises the issues discussed and sets out the group's recommendations. It will be for others to consider how to respond.

Online Issue 160

The ‘Mirrlees Review’ of UK Taxation
In this article, Tony Atkinson (Nuffield College Oxford and LSE), a past president of the RES, reviews the work of the IFS and James Mirrlees published in 2012 under the title Tax by Design.

Economic Journal — Editor’s annual report
The annual report of the editor of the Economic Journal was presented to Council in November. This is an edited version.

Econometrics Journal — Editor’s annual report
The managing editor, Richard J Smith, made the annual report covering the period July 1 2011 to June 30 2012, to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. This is an edited version of that report.

Money, Macro and Finance Research Group - Annual Conference
The 44th Annual Conference of the MMFRG was held at Trinity College, Dublin 6-8th September 2012. This report was prepared by Peter Smith, the Group’s Chairman.

Online Issue 159

What’s the use of economics?
Earlier this year, the Bank of England and the Government Economic Service sponsored a conference to discuss the teaching of economics in the light of the recent crisis. In this article Diane Coyle describes plans to take this initiative forward.

News from the Economics Network
Economics Graduates’ Skills and Employability by Dr Inna Pomorina

Welfare compensation for unemployment in the Great Recession
New research by Mariña Fernandez Salgado (University of Essex); Francesco Figari (University of Insubria and ISER University of Essex); Holly Sutherland, Alberto Tumino (ISER University of Essex) analyses the extent to which tax-benefit systems provide an automatic stabilisation of income for those who became unemployed at the onset of the Great Recession.

The ‘1981 statement by 364 economists’ revisited
Thirty years ago, when cuts in public expenditure were once again at the centre of a controversial policy to reduce the level of public sector borrowing, 364 economists famously signed a letter of protest to The Times. Professor Robert Neild was one of its authors.

In (partial) defence of fiscal austerity
Recent issues of this Newsletter have included articles somewhat critical of current austerity policies. In this contribution John Fender, University of Birmingham, puts a partial defence.

Online Issue 158

RES Conference Report
The Society’s Annual Conference took place this year at the University of Cambridge from 26th-28th March. This report was compiled by Sam Fleming, Economics Editor of The Times.

Understanding Oil and Commodity Prices
The Money, Macro and Finance Research Group held a workshop, jointly organised with the Bank of England and the Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis (ANU), at the Bank of England on 25 May 2012, entitled Understanding Oil and Commodity Prices. This report was compiled by Professor Simon Price.

HMRC/HMT/ESRC Joint Research Programme
Tax Policy and Operations in the Context of Economic and Societal Change
About 18 months ago the ESRC/HMRC/HMT jointly funded seven research projects on tax administration. Gareth Miles, reports on the results.

The Public Responsibilities of the Economist
The Tanner Lectures on Human Values are given at selected universities around the world. This year's lectures, 'On the Public Responsibilities of the Economist', were given at Brasenose College, Oxford, on May 18-19 by Diane Coyle. This is an edited version of the first of those lectures.

The Competitive Position of Dutch Schools of Economics
Since English universities began charging substantial fees to undergraduates, there has been considerable interest in the possibility of English students studying elsewhere in the EU. The Netherlands is one popular destination. In this article Professor Ivo Arnold, Vice Dean and Professor of Economic Education, Erasmus School of Economics, Rotterdam, explains the situation from a Dutch perspective.

Studying economics in the Netherlands - A student view
Paul Balenski, a UK postgraduate student of economics, shares his experience of living in Rotterdam and studying at Erasmus University.

Online Issue 157

Economics education after the crisis by Diane Coyle
In February, the Government Economic Service and the Bank of England hosted an event which explored economics teaching and learning in UK universities in the wake of the financial crisis. The following articles give two views on the conclusions reached by the discussion. The second also includes student views as reported in the Economics Network annual survey.

Australia doing it tough?! Structural change noise obscures cyclical story
Nigel Stapledon argues that the popular view of Australia’s recent current performance is distorted by a confusion over cyclical and structural changes.

Online Issue 156

Hyperbolic Disasters! From an address by Ray Rees,
In November 2011 the CESifo Prize Fellowship was awarded to Professor Sir Partha Dasgupta, a past-president of the Society at Spatenhaus, Munich. This is an edited version of the address given by Ray Rees to mark the occasion.

On the Side of the Angels? Economists, Protest and Positional Rents, by David Collard
At a time when rewards to top bankers and others are subject to popular protest, David Collard, at the University of Bath, argues that economists should be less keen to defend the status quo by showing more awareness of the role of economic rent in the setting of higher level rewards.

Pro Bono Economics - an update by Sue Holloway
In the 146th issue of the Newsletter, July 2009, we highlighted an initiative by Martin Brookes and Andrew Haldane to launch this service whereby professional economists could make their skills available to charities on a ‘pro bono’ basis. Sue Holloway, Managing Director of Pro Bono Economics has sent us this update.

The Economics Network, Shaping tomorrow's economics graduates, by Ashley Lait
The Network has spoken to a number of UK departments to find out about changes in teaching practice. These conversations showed that universities are focusing on two key areas: developing students’ critical skills and employability; and improving the learning experience and assessment process.

The Adam Smith Tartan, by Robert Wright
The Scottish Economics Society has created a new corporate tartan that honours the great Scottish economist and philosopher, Adam Smith. This note was prepared by Robert Wright, a past President of the Society and Keeper of the Tartan.

A haircut every year, by Thomas Colignatus
Governments in the European Union suffer under high rates of interest. Components of interest are: (1) the risk free rate like Germany has; (2) the liquidity premium that we can determine from, say, the difference between Germany and Holland or Finland; (3) the risk of default that applies to Greece; and (4) stigma that consists of irrational factors that become rational since they are rewarded. Thomas Colignatus1 suggests a new rule helps to reduce (4) and to prevent it developing into (3).

Online Issue 155

The Royal Economic Society Women’s Committee Survey 2010
This report on the recent survey was prepared by Laura C Blanco and Prof Karen Mumford at the University of York.

Surely you’re joking, Mr Keynes?
Mark Harrison, University of Warwick, takes a critical look at two questions that have been widely debated in the last few months: One is that we should borrow our way out of recession; the other is that we can spend our way of debt.

Online Issue 154

RES Annual Conference Report
The Society’s Annual Conference this year was held for the first time at Royal Holloway University of London, 18-20 April. This report comes from Aditya Chakrabortty of The Guardian.

Debating Austerity Measures
In last year’s July issue of the Newsletter (no. 150) we published a critical view of the UK government’s current austerity measures, based to a large degree on an article by Victoria Chick and Ann Pettifor. Given its provocative nature we were somewhat surprised at the lack of reaction until Philip Booth and Len Shackleton took issue with Chick and Pettifor in this year’s April issue. This is the reply from Chick and Pettifor.

Online Issue 153

Are we suffering from ‘deficit fetishism’?
In the July 2010 Newsletter we published an article reflecting critical comments we had received regarding the UK coalition’s fiscal strategy. We invited contributors to put the opposing view and so we are grateful to Philip Booth, Cass Business School and Institute of Economic Affairs, and J R Shackleton, University of East London and IEA, for taking up the challenge.

Not called the lucky country for nothing or why Australia missed the Great Atlantic Recession
Nigel Stapledon, at the University of New South Wales explains why Australia missed out on the recession recently experienced by the USA and Europe.

Secretary-General’s Annual Report
The Secretary-General, Prof John Beath, delivered his latest Annual Report to the Society’s AGM held during the Annual Conference at Royal Holloway University of London on 18th April.

Online Issue 152

Economic Journal - Editor's Report 2010
The annual report of the editor of the Economic Journal is presented to Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. A shortened version of the 2010 report appears here.

Econometrics Journal - Editor's Report 2010
The managing editor, Richard J Smith, made the annual report covering the period July 2009 to June 2010, to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. This is a shortened version of that report.

Online Issue 150

RES Annual Conference, 2010
The Society’s Annual Conference was held this year at the University of Surrey, from 29th to31st March. John O’Sullivan of the Economist prepared this report.

New LSE blog questions UK budgetary policy
From late March to late May 2010 the LSE’s Election Experts blog provided a forum for LSE experts (and others) to discuss evidence relating to the themes of the general election. Following the success of that temporary initiative, the LSE has now established a permanent facility called British Politics and Policy at LSE.1 The key aim is still to make available serious social science analysis in an accessible and highly relevant way. In a recent blog, John Van Reenen argues that the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer’s recent austerity budget risks causing serious damage to the UK economy.

Online Issue 149

Secretary-General's Annual Report
The Secretary-general, Prof John Beath, presented his annual report to the Annual General Meeting of the Society that took place at the University of Surrey on 29th March.

Online Issue 148

The Economic Journal — Editors’ Report
The Managing Editors make their Annual Report to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. The 2009 Report was presented on their behalf by Andrew Scott. A shortened version appears below.

The Econometrics Journal — Managing Editor’s report
The Managing Editor, Richard J Smith made the Annual Report, covering the period July 2008 to June 2009, to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. This is a shortened version of that report.

Online Issue 147

A Controversial Correspondence
In the July 2009 Newsletter Ray Rees’s ‘Letter from Germany’ reported and commented on a recent debate in Germany about the appropriate training for economic policy-makers. As he explains below, these comments sparked further controversy. Ray asks: ‘Does this debate have a resonance outside Germany?’

Online Issue 146

Pro Bono Economics
UK charities make little use of the professional skills of economists. In this article, Martin Brookes and Andrew G Haldane look at why this is the case and outline an exciting new project to broker economists into the charitable sector. Volunteers welcome!

Conference Report
The Society’s Annual Conference took place this year at the University of Surrey, 21st -22nd April. This report of the event is written by Saugato Datta of The Economist.

Secretary-General's Annual Report
The new Secretary-General, John Beath, gave the following report of the Society’s recent activities at the Annual General Meeting held during the Annual Conference at the University of Surrey. This is followed, for the first time, by a report on the Society’s finances from the Honorary Treasurer, Mark Robson.

Online Issue 145

The Great Welsh Leek Bubble of 1876
Ray Rees, who writes a regular Letter from Germany in our July issue, reports here on a little known crisis in the Welsh leek market more than a century ago.

Objective Data on World-Leading Research
Following the conclusions of the recent Research Assessment Exercise, Andrew Oswald uses citations to judge the impact of UK economic research. He finds that the UK produced 10 per cent of the influential research in economics over the RAE period and some of this came from departments not normally thought of as amongst the elite.

Online Issue 144

The Helpman Report
In the July issue of the Newsletter, we reported on the visit to the Society’s Annual Conference of an international team of economists led by Professor Elhanan Helpman of Harvard University as part of their preparation of an International Benchmarking Review of UK Economics. Their Report was published in November 2008 and its main findings are summarised here.

Krugman on Keynes
In 2007 the Royal Economic Society (in conjunction with Palgrave Macmillan) published a new edition of J M Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, with a new introduction by this year’s winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics, Paul Krugman. In that introduction, Krugman argued that while some aspects of the The General Theory are better understood against the peculiar circumstances of the 1930’s, the fundamental ideas are widely accepted — ‘we are all Keynesians now’. Since that introduction was written, there have been dramatic changes in the world economy which make The General Theory even more relevant. To mark Krugman’s honour we are printing a shortened version of his essay.

Economic Journal
- Editors' Report
The Managing Editors make their Annual Report to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. The 2008 Report was presented on their behalf by Andrew Scott. A shortened version appears here.

Econometrics Journal
- Editor's Report

The Managing Editor, Richard J Smith made the Annual Report, covering the period July 2007 to June 2008, to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. In a new departure, we are pleased to be able to include a summary of that report.

Online Issue 143

Economics, and economists, in transition
László Csaba, who chaired the Committee on Economics in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 2002 to 2008, explains the recent changes in economics education and the role of economists in the transition economies of central and eastern Europe.

National survey of economics students
In 2008, the Economics Network of the Higher Education Academy carried out its fourth survey of Economics students, covering both undergraduates and postgraduates. This is a summary of the report.

Online Issue 142

Richard Portes and Economics in the UK
As readers will know, there have been a number of changes involving officers of the Society this summer. Richard Portes has stepped down after a long and impressive stint as Secretary-General. In this article, the current President, John Vickers, and five former Presidents pay tribute to Richard’s achievements.

Annual Conference Report
The Society’s Annual Conference took place this year at the University of Warwick , 17th to 19th March. This report of the event is written by Tim Harford, a Financial Times columnist, and author of The Logic of Life and The Undercover Economist.

Online Issue 141

The Annual Report of the Secretary-General
The Secretary-General, Professor Richard Portes, presented the following report on the Society’s activities to its Annual General Meeting, held on 17th March during the 2008 Annual Conference at Warwick.

ESRC International Benchmarking Review
Neil Rickman, University of Surrey reports on the ESRC’s international benchmarking review of economics, some of which centred on the Society’s Annual Conference last month.

Climate change, the Stern Review and Discounting the Future
David Evans of Oxford Brookes University looks at an issue that has been the source of much controversy (some of it in these pages) since the appearance of Sir Nicholas Stern’s review of the economics of climate change.

Online Issue 140

Economic Journal Editors' Report
The Managing Editors make their Annual Report to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. The 2006 Report was presented on their behalf by Andrew Scott.

A life in economics: Avinash Dixit
Earlier this year, Avinash Dixit from Princeton was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Warwick. Andrew Oswald took the opportunity to find out more about his career.

Climate Change, Ethics and the Economics of the Global Deal
The Society’s 2007 Annual Public Lecture was given by Nicholas Stern in Manchester on 29th November and in London on the 30th. We reproduce here a dramatically shortened summary of Lord Stern’s talk.

Online Issue 139

The Skills and Knowledge of the Graduate Economist
As promised in the last issue we can now bring readers the full results of the recent study of skills and knowledge required by employers and the extent to which these are reflected in the Benchmark Statement for Economics.

Online Issue 138

Evidence on the future of economics
Andrew Oswald and Hilda Ralsmark of Warwick University collect and study the CVs of 112 assistant professors in the top ten American departments of economics. and treat these as a glimpse of the future. They find evidence of a remarkable brain-drain from other nations and that the great majority of these assistant professors are doing empirical rather than theoretical work. The findings are examined alongside forecasts made in the 1991 Centenary issue of the Economic Journal on ‘The Future of Economics’.

Annual Conference Report
The Society’s Annual Conference took place this year at the University of Warwick , 11th to 13th April. This report of the event is written by Mario Pisani, a former leader writer at the Financial Times and now an economic adviser at HM Treasury.

The Bank of England ten years on
Hans-Helmut Kotz, of the Executive Board of the Deutsche Bundesbank and honorary Professor at Freiburg University offers a personal view of ten years operational independence at the Bank of England.

Online Issue 137

Are economists conquering the world?
Diane Coyle celebrates the increasing policy influence of economists in recent years but issues a challenge to RES members to engage with the wider public to ensure the legitimacy of this influence and to consider carefully some fundamental changes that are required in the training of young economists.

Secretary-General’s Annual Report
The Secretary-General, Professor Richard Portes, presented the following report on the Society's activities to its Annual General Meeting, held on 11th April during the 2007 Annual Conference at Warwick.

The RES Annual Public Lecture The Bottom Billion
This Royal Economic Society’s Annual Public Lecture, ‘War and Peace in Africa’, was given in London, Edinburgh and Sheffield last December, by Paul Collier of Oxford University. It was based on his new book The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can be Done About It to be published in May 2007 by Oxford University Press.

Online Issue 136

Economic Journal - Editors' Report
The Managing Editors make their Annual Report to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. The 2006 Report was presented on their behalf by Andrew Scott.

Economics and the media
Following Angus Deaton’s account in the October Newsletter of the media treatment of a recent research paper which brought together the characteristics of height and intelligence, Tim Harford makes some suggestions for raising the profile of economic research and improving its reporting. Tim is a columnist for the Financial Times and Slate, presenter of the BBC2 series ‘Trust Me, I'm an Economist’, and author of The Undercover Economist.

Online Issue 135

Secretary-General's Annual Report
The Secretary-General, Professor Richard Portes, presented the following report on the Society's activities to its Annual General Meeting, held on 18th April1 during the 2006 Annual Conference at Nottingham.

Prestige labels - journal reputations
As thoughts amongst researchers turn increasingly towards the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise (and its possible sequel), Andrew Oswald, University of Warwick, argues that journal reputations are a poor guide to the quality of the research that they publish.

Online Issue 134

Annual Conference Report
The Society's Annual Conference took place this year at the University of Nottingham, 18th to 20th of April. This report on the event is written by Chris Giles of the Financial Times.

German-speaking Economists in British Exile 1933-1945
Readers of the Newsletter will appreciate better than most that the generation of economists now coming sadly to the end of its natural life includes a very large number who were born in Eastern Europe before 1939. Professor Harald Hagemann of the University of Hohenheim has researched and published a number of papers on this diaspora. This is a distillation.

Online Issue 133

Royal Economic Society Survey on the Gender Balance of Academic Economics 2004
In our last issue, Jane Humphries, Chair of the RES Women’s Committee, reported some preliminary results from the 2004 survey of gender and ethnic balance in UK academic economics. This article, prepared by Jonathan Burton and Jane Humphries, reports more fully on the findings on gender balance.

Online Issue 132

The Economic Journal, managing editors’ report
The Managing Editors make their Annual Report to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November. The 2005 Report was presented on their behalf by Leonardo Felli.

Another look at the refereeing process
Christian Seidl (University of Kiel), Ulrich Schmidt (University of Hanover) and Peter Grösche (RWE Essen) report some rather disturbing results from their survey of economists’ experience of the journal refereeing process.

Online Issue 131

Escape from the ivory tower
Romesh Vaitilingam is a writer and media consultant who advises several research institutions on their public profile. These include the Royal Economic Society, the ESRC, the Institute for Social and Economic Research and the Centre for Economic Performance. In this article he reflects on why UK economists are less prominent in the media than their US counterparts.

Online Issue 130

The Annual Conference
The Society's Annual Conference took place this year at the University of Nottingham, 21st-23rd of March. This report on the event was contributed by Heather Stewart of the Observer newspaper.

The Annual Report of the Secretary-General
The Secretary-General, Professor Richard Portes, presented the following report on the Society's activities to its Annual General Meeting, on 21st March during the 2004 Annual Conference at Nottingham.

Online Issue 129

More on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Bjart Holtsmark and Knut H Alfsena take issue with one of the critricisms made by David Henderson in his article on the IPCC in the January Newsletter.

Economists in Regional Development
In this, the latest in our series on the work of economists in various situations, Nigel Jump, Head of Economic Intelligence / Chief Economist with the South West of England Regional Development Agency, describes the expanding role for economic analysis in addressing regional disparities within the UK economy

Online Issue 128

Economic Journal - editors' report
The Managing Editors made their Annual Report to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November 2004. The report was presented to Council by Mike Wickens on the completion of his term as Co-ordinating Managing Editor.

The Treatment of Economic Issues by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Issues relating to climate change, and to the choice of policies for dealing with it, are now highly topical. In Britain, both the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition have recently emphasised the urgent need for measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions, and Mr Blair has stated his intention to place this issue high on the agenda of the coming G8 summit meeting. In this context, readers may be interested to hear of some recent exchanges relating to economic aspects of these issues. Aside from their intrinsic interest, the exchanges raise wider questions as to the role of economics and economists in the policy process. David Henderson, formerly (among other things) Head of the Economics and Statistics Department of the OECD, and now Visiting Professor at the Westminster Business School, has been one of the participants in the current debate. This is his personal report.

Online Issue 127

The Economist's economists
After 13 years writing mainly on economics on the staff of The Guardian and 20 on The Economist, Frances Cairncross left at the end of August to become the Rector of Exeter College, Oxford. Here, she describes life at The Economist — and the way 1960s architecture helped to create one of the world’s most international magazines.

Student standards in economics in Australia
In this article, Peter Abelson reports on a survey of student standards in Australian universities conducted by the Economic Society of Australia. The full report on the survey, including the survey questionnaire, can be found on the Society website: www.ecosoc.org.au. Peter Abelson is Secretary of the Economic Society of Australia and a Professor in the Department of Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney.

Online Issue 126

The Secretary-General's Annual Report
The Secretary-General, Professor Richard Portes, presented the following report on the Society's activities to its Annual General Meeting, on 5th April during the 2004 Annual Conference at Swansea.

Conference Report
The Society's Annual Conference took place this year at the University of Swansea Swansea, April 5-7. This report on the event was contributed by David Warsh who was for many years economics columnist of The Boston Globe. He now writes weekly at www.economicprincipals.com.

Gender Issues in Economic Research
The RES Committee on Women in Economics organised a special session at the RES 2004 Annual Conference illustrating the application of economics to a range of gender issues. This report was prepared by Ramya Sundaram, and Myrna Wooders, respectively the discussant and organiser, RES 2004 ‘Women in Economics’ Committee Session.

Online Issue 125

The Bank of England Agencies and the Monetary Policy Committee
Kevin Butler is the Bank of England's South West Regional Agent. In this article he explains the part played by the Agencies in feeding information to the MPC and in communicating the Bank’s thinking to the business community. The latter role makes an important contribution to the transparency of monetary policy making.

The Economics of Academic Publishing
Christopher Gasson is a publishing analyst. He was formerly the financial editor of The Bookseller, and a publishing company broker with Bertoli Mitchell.

Why economics should be in the HEFCE part-laboratory cost band
The classification of economics as a ‘low-cost’ library-based discipline has long-been a source of grievance to English academic economists who see subjects like business and management, with lower technical resuirements, receive more generous funding by the Highr Education Funding Council for England. In autumn of last year John Beath, then chair of the Society’s Conference of Heads of University Departments of Economics (CHUDE) and Stephen Nickell, the Society’s President, put a strongly-argued case for change to HEFCE. Although HEFCE’s response was not overly encouraging it does hold out hope for some improvement. The case and the response are set out here.

Online Issue 124

The Economic Journal Editors' Report
The managing editors made their Annual Report to the Council of the Royal Economic Society in November 2003. The report was presented on behalf of the editors by Mike Wickens.

Treading a difficult path
In a recent Economic Journal article, Pranab Bardhan lamented the difficulty that researchers in specialist fields have in getting their work published in general journals. Mike Wickens, for eight years a managing editor of the Economic Journal, gives his personal view of how editors work.

Women academic economists in retreat?
Heather Joshi, the Chair of the RES Committee on Women in Economics, reports on its fourth survey on gender balance in UK university departments of economics.

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